Fringe,
Nutrition,
43 MINS

#170: Human vs. Animal Brains

March 03, 2017
MP3

Do rats have a “mind” the way humans do?  Can chimps understand the mental states of others?

Dr. Aaron Blaisdell, Professor at UCLA, joins Jesse in episode 170 to talk about animal cognition.

Animals and the Mind

Dr. Blaisdell began his career working with chimpanzees.  Two fun facts:  they love being tickled and will use mirrors to inspect their teeth.

Eventually, he moved on to studying the sophistication of rat cognition.  Turns out that rats do have a “mind,” similar to humans in certain ways.

For example, rats can understand that if, in the past, one event always occurred in the presence of a second event, when the first event occurs, the second event is likely to occur too.  Think of the way that the sound of thunder generally accompanies lightening.

What Makes Human Brains Special?

Humans don’t have the biggest brain of any animal, and we don’t have the most neurons, but we do have more specialized neurons and a larger frontal cortex.

The frontal cortex is responsible for flexible reasoning, long-term planning, and self-control, among other virtues.  Not only is our frontal cortex proportionally larger, but it’s also more differentiated — it has more submodules than other animals.

In fact, as humans evolved and our brains grew, the majority of our brain’s growth occurred in the frontal cortex.  We also grew more connections between our cortex and our spinal cord, particularly the areas controlling our hands, lips and throats, which perhaps explains our ability with spoken language and dexterity.

PS:  For more brain-boosting goodness, get our weekly Brain Breakfast newsletter.

Show Notes
  • 00:00:26

    Episode introduction: Human vs. Animal Brains.

  • 00:01:48

    This Week In Neuroscience: Dogs as animal models of human cognition.

  • 00:04:30

    5-Star review shoutouts.

  • 00:05:07

    SDS news and updates.

  • 00:06:32

    Guest introduction: Dr. Aaron Blaisdell.

  • 00:08:15

    Interview begins.

  • 00:09:55

    Awareness and theory of mind in chimpanzees.

  • 00:11:30

    Awareness in other species.

  • 00:12:10

    Dr. Blaisdell's recent work.

  • 00:14:50

    Study on cognition and brain function rats.

  • 00:20:15

    Episodic memories.

  • 00:21:25

    Instrumental learning and causal reasoning.

  • 00:24:02

    Animals with larger brains than humans.

  • 00:25:50

    Human and animal brain divergences.

  • 00:26:57

    Brain lateralization in animals.

  • 00:28:25

    The human mind.

  • 00:31:20

    Diet and cognition in animal models.

  • 00:35:32

    Future research interests.

  • 00:37:20

    Interview wrap-up.

  • 00:38:49

    Ruthless Listener Retention Gimmick: More animal brain facts!

  • 00:41:49

    Episode wrap-up.

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