The mind is a powerful thing — it can heal the body or harm the body. Of course, it can’t affect everything; no amount of wishing is going to take away our basic needs like eating and drinking.
Still, the power of placebo should not be underestimated. Dr. Tor Wager, director of the Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience laboratory at the University of Colorado, Boulder, joins Jesse to talk to us about the mystery of placebo.
The Placebo Effect
The placebo effect occurs when a person is unknowingly given a sham treatment (no active ingredients) that has the positive effect the person was expecting.
That placebo painkillers really work has been proven time and again. Researchers can even see changes in the brain consistent with reduced pain. But the exact mechanism remains a mystery.
The prior expectation of a benefit appears to be key to influencing the brain. The benefits follow your expectations. That’s why if you believe a drug will actually make your pain worse, you’ll often experience a nocebo effect, and you’ll feel more pain.
A Partial Explanation
At least part of what’s going on seems to be an extension of the constant work your brain is doing to adjust to current circumstances.
So, if you expect to feel pain, your brain will pre-emptively mount an anti-pain response, releasing opioids, which are natural painkillers. It may be that, as you expect to receive a benefit, your brain starts to prepare for it, and actually ends up causing that benefit to occur.
If the placebo effect is dependent on belief, could you ever self-induce placebo? If you know that you’re taking a placebo pill, could you ever experience a benefit?
Traditional wisdom says you can’t. That you have to be fooled and believe you’re taking a real medication. But new “open label” placebo studies are challenging that belief.
Expectations are still critical, but it turns out that the expectation of a real benefit is what’s critical, not the belief that you are taking a real medication.
Susceptibility to Placebo
Some people are higher responders to placebo than others. Old studies from the ‘60s seemed to point to the idea that the more neurotic you are, the more likely you are to experience placebo. But those results were predicated on the idea that placebo is a fake treatment for a fake illness, which is blatantly false.
Newer studies, on the other hand, indicate that optimistic people are more likely to benefit from placebo, although it’s hard to pin down a single personality trait correlated with placebo effects.
PS: We don’t know if our weekly Brain Breakfasts are placebo, but you’ll definitely benefit!